This chapter begins having a description regarding the male and female reproductive systems followed by an area on intercourse determination.

A great familiarity with the physiology of the systems has allowed the growth of an unique way of semen collection and insemination adjusted specifically to geese (see part on synthetic Insemination). This can be somewhat distinctive from the method employed for almost every other species that are avian e.g. Gallus gallus .


FIGURE 12. Reproductive organs for the gander

The system that is reproductive of gander comes with three distinct components:

There's two bean-shaped testicles within the human anatomy cavity which produce both spermatozoa and hormones that are male. They have been highly vascularized and alter in position and size in accordance with if the gander is intimately active or otherwise not. The chronilogical age of intimate readiness for ganders is straight regarding their illumination programme. Nevertheless, spermatozoa manufacturing doesn't frequently begin before the ganders are at minimum 30 months of age. The spermatozoa move to the epididymis from the testicles.

The vas deferens

These (there are two main) stick to the urethras and transport the spermatozoa through the testicles additionally the epididymis into the copulatory organ. Their length that is apparent is cm, however they have many bends and twists plus in reality measure significantly more than 30 cm. The vas deferenes would be the location of spermatozoa maturation and storage space. They terminate in the seminal vesicles found in the wall that is cloaca.

The copulative organ

In contrast to the rooster, Gallus gallus, the copulatory organ associated with gander is extremely well toned. It really is invaginated, spiral-like and it is about 15 cm in total. a spermatic furrow operates across the whole duration of the organ and transports the semen after ejaculation.


FIGURE 13. Reproductive organs of this goose

Like the majority of other wild birds, the female goose possesses a distinctive reproductive system on the left part of its stomach. The functions regarding the reproductive system are to create, fertilise and mature the oocyte.

When copulation or insemination has had spot, the oviduct leads to spermatozoa storage space. When an adult oocyte is released on an ovulated yolk, it's acquired because of the infundibulum where fertilisation does occur. The egg white or albumen will be secreted mainly within the magnum. The egg then moves to your isthmus where in actuality the shell membranes are created. Within the womb or shell gland, water as well as the albumen that are thin added in addition to shell is created. The vagina features a component that is muscular helps you to expel the egg through the cloaca.

When picking geese for breeding, the intercourse of every goose must certanly be determined. With types like the Pilgrim that are autosexing by feather color (adult men are white and adult females are grey), this can be easy. The sexes are readily identifiable by the size of their knob, with those of mature males being larger, more prominent and associated with a larger head for chinese breeds of geese. Many strains single russian women of Embden plus some strains of White Italian can down be sexed by color as goslings, because the men are lighter in color compared to females. After a couple weeks of age, these sex differences in down color disappear, so sex identification of specific goslings needs to be done at hatching.

Other varieties of geese lack distinctive sex that is secondary and so to intercourse geese of the types it's important to look at their sex organs. Nonetheless, and even though geese may be sexed by study of their intercourse organs, either as gosling or as grownups, it is strongly suggested which they be sexed as goslings at hatching. Whenever this might be done, an excellent system of recognition is necessary (see identification that is geese to ensure individual geese may be identified in their life. The sexing of goslings at hatching also enables for the disposal of surplus men, not essential for reproduction, at market age. It is suggested this one male be kept for virtually any three females to make sure there are sufficient males to produce up breeder teams by having a ratio of 1 male to 4 or 5 females.

Vent sexing of time old goslings just isn't hard and just a little training can make the sexing of day-old goslings a task that is fairly easy. Figure 14 shows just how to hold a gosling, which can be the way that is same hold a duckling, in order to expose its reproductive organs. This method of exposing reproductive organs should happen under a light that is strong purchase to raised recognize the sex organ. Figure 15 shows the male and female reproductive organs of goslings much increased.

FIGURE 14. way of keeping day-old goslings to reveal their organs that are reproductive

FIGURE 15. Male (left) and female (right) reproductive organs of day-old goslings (much enlarged)

( supply : Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food)

The recommended procedure is that each goose be caught, lifted by its neck and laid on its back, either on a table or over the operator's bent knee, with the tail pointed away from the operator as shown in Figure 16 if geese are to be sexed as adults.

FIGURE 16. Way of holding adult geese for sexing

( supply : Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food)

The end part of the bird must be away within the side of the dining dining table or higher the operator's leg so that it can be bent downwards effortlessly. The operator then inserts his/her index finger (often it will help to possess just a little Vaseline about it) in to the cloaca about 1.0 to 1.5 cm and moves it around in a circular manner many times to expand and flake out the sphincter muscle mass which closes the opening. Next, pressure is used both directly below also to the part associated with vent so that you can expose the intercourse organ as shown in Figure 17. The male organ is somewhat difficult to unsheathe, particularly if the birds are either immature or not in semen production in some birds. An inexperienced sexer can easily mistake a male for a female if, after slight pressure, the phallus is not exposed for this reason. Just the presence of a female genital eminence will favorably identify a lady.

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